Arterial hypertension (AH) is a chronic stable increase in arterial pressure, in which systolic SBP 140 mm Hg. or higher and / or DBP is 90 mmHg. or higher.
Hypertension is often called a "silent killer", because it creeps up to us gradually, without any tangible symptoms, exposing the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, or even stroke. Studies have shown that hypertension can be controlled, without resorting to the use of pharmaceuticals. If you still have to take medications to lower blood pressure, then changing your lifestyle can improve their performance, reduce or even negate your need for them. Simple efforts can lead to a significant reduction in blood pressure. Even a slight decrease in the systolic (upper) pressure value is considered valuable - the drop in systolic pressure by only two points reduces the likelihood of stroke death by 6% and coronary artery disease by 4%.
1. Follow the diet. This diet is rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. It is low in fat, red meat, sweets and sugary drinks. Adhering to such a diet, you can reduce the systolic pressure by 8-14 points. Studies have shown that compliance with such a diet can be even more effective than taking certain medications to combat hypertension.
2. Relieve weight. It is estimated that you can lower the systolic pressure index by 5-20 points for every 10 kilograms of weight loss. Even a loss of 2-3 kg of weight can be useful. In any case, reducing excess weight will only add to your vitality.
3. Limit the intake of sodium chloride (table salt) to 2-4 g per day (1 teaspoon), and you can reduce another 2-8 points of systolic pressure. Study the sodium content on the package: more than 0.2 g of sodium per 100 g of product - high content (sausages, smoked fish, tomato sauce and juice, cheeses, olives); less than 0.1 g - low content (rice, oats, fruits, vegetables, potatoes, fresh meat, poultry, fish, bran). It should be taken into account that a number of products include sodium in the form of other salts (for example, benzoate or glutamate sodium), and not only in the form of sodium chloride.
4. Exercise 5-7 times a week for 30 minutes, and you can lose another 4-9 points of systolic pressure. Do walking at a fast pace 30-40 minutes 3-5 times a week. It is useful to alternate walking with swimming and biking. But do not allow fatigue, a sense of discomfort and shortness of breath.
5. Limit the use of alcohol, and you can remove 2-4 points of systolic pressure. Not more than 50 ml (one glass) of strong alcohol or not more than 500 ml of beer (one bottle) per day is the norm for men. Women are allowed to eat half as much.
6. Provide yourself a healthy sleep at night. Lack of sleep can contribute to the onset of hypertension.
7. Limit the use of liquid. Not more than 1.5 liters of liquid per day, and in the presence of edema - up to 800 ml. All liquid is taken into account, including used in the form of tea and soups.
8. Eat 5-6 g of potassium per day. Potassium improves the activity of the heart muscle by increasing urine output. More than 0.5 g of potassium per 100 g of product is available in apricots, beans, seaweed, prunes, raisins, peas, potatoes (baked in a uniform). Up to 0.4 g of potassium is found in beef, pork, cod, hake, mackerel, squid, oatmeal, green peas, tomatoes, beetroot, radish, green onions, currants, grapes, apricots and peaches.
9. Get enough calcium and magnesium. 1 mg calcium per day, if you are under 50 years old, and 1-2 mg if you are already over 50. A lot of calcium is found in dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, cheese), greens, salmon . In a half to two times increase the consumption of foods rich in magnesium. It has a vasodilating and diuretic action, it helps prevent the spasms of blood vessels. A lot of magnesium is found in rye and wheat bread with bran, oatmeal, millet, buckwheat porridge, beetroot, carrot, green salad, parsley, black currant, walnuts and almonds.
10. Get at least 500 mg of vitamin C daily. It acts on the body in the same way as some recommended long-acting drugs for lowering blood pressure.
11. Get enough omega-3 fatty acids by eating fatty fish or high quality fish oil (not contaminated with mercury). A study in Japan found that men with the highest intake of omega-3 fatty acids had the lowest blood pressure.
12. Alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine can reduce the pressure. Some people have high blood pressure due to the fact that their blood vessels can not "relax." They do not expand when they have to do this, which leads to increased pressure. In one study, it was found that individuals taking 200 mg of alpha-lipoic acid and 500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine for 8 weeks increased the diameter of the arteries and lowered blood pressure. Consult your doctor if this combination can be useful for you.
13. Give up smoking. It damages the walls of blood vessels and speeds up the sclerosing of the arteries. Smoking is the main risk factor for coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction). The direct effect of several cigarettes on blood pressure may not be great, but regular smoking causes chemical changes in the body, which cause a persistent increase in blood pressure.
14. Avoid stress. The stress hormone adrenaline causes the heart to beat more often, pumping more blood in a unit of time, resulting in increased blood pressure. If the stress lasts a long time, the constant load wears the blood vessels and the increase in blood pressure becomes chronic.
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