Conditions or treatments that cause inflammation or scarring in the esophagus can lead to strictures:
- Eosinophilic esophagitis: This allergic reaction/immune system problem causes inflammation in the esophagus, possibly leading to strictures.
- Esophageal cancer: When abnormal cells divide or grow out of control in esophageal tissue, the tumor can cause strictures.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): With GERD, stomach acid can flow backward. The acid damages the lining of your esophagus. This type of stricture is called a peptic stricture.
- Radiation therapy: Treatment for cancer in the head, neck or chest can cause strictures up to a year and a half later.
- Surgery: A procedure in the esophagus can leave inflammation and scarring, causing a stricture.
- Other causes: Ulcers, some medications (for example, some antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), certain infections and accidentally swallowing chemicals can also cause strictures.