In addition to HPV, there are other risk factors that could increase your chance of developing anal cancer, including:
- Immunosuppressants. These are medications that stop your immune system from damaging healthy cells.
- Engaging in anal sex as the receiving partner. This is true for both men and women. In general, having multiple partners for any type of sex increases your risk for HPV, HIV and anal cancer.
- Age. The majority of anal cancer diagnoses are made in people aged 55 and over.
- Smoking. People who smoke are more likely to develop cancer of all kinds.
- Having an impaired immune system due to disease or medication use. (For instance, people who are organ recipients must take medicine to prevent organ rejection).
- Having an anal fistula (an abnormal opening), which goes from your anus to the skin around your anus or occasionally to another place in your body.